Monday, October 14, 2019

Abigail Williams Questions Essay Example for Free

Abigail Williams Questions Essay Abigail Williams used her manipulative skills to get her way and create hysteria in the town of Salem. 1. Why did Abigail flee Salem? She knows soon she will be questioned for the death of Goody Nurse and John 2. Why does Abigail admit to witchcraft? She knows she can get rid of her enemies by blaming them for witchcraft too 3. How is Abigail a hypocrite? She says she loves god in act 1 but she fuels the witch trials and is seen like a devil-like character 4. Why did Abigail want the charm to hurt Elizabeth Proctor? She wanted to have John to herself 5. How is Abigail related to Parris? She is he the niece 6. How did Abigail blame Elizabeth Proctor for poppet? She sticks a needle in herself and says Elizabeth used witchcraft with the doll 7. Why does Abigail think she is a woman and not a kid? Because of her affair with John 8. Why does Abigail do witchcraft? To get back the love of John 9. How is Abigail manipulative in the crucible? Since she is a child she is good at acting like she is innocent 10. How is Abigail selfish? She wanted John all to herself and will do anything to get him 11. How does Abigail change in the story? She acts like a innocent girl but turns into a evil and manipulative girl and then becomes a thief 12. Why does Abigail accuse others for witchcraft? She knew if she accused others she could get out of being blamed 13. Why does Abigail accuse Tituba for what happened in the woods? She is afraid to confess to her sins, her reputation is already ruined because of the affair 14. How does Abigail trick Danforth? She says there is a yellow bird but he can’t see it so he thinks she is possessed 15. Why does Abigail hate Elizabeth? Elizabeth kicked her out so no one else wanted to hire her because of the incident. How does Abigail use her manipulative skills? To what end does she use them and why does she use them in that way? How do they bring about the hysteria in Salem?

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Effect of Alpha-galactosidase on Digestive System

Effect of Alpha-galactosidase on Digestive System Janaaron Aquino    The Effect of the Enzyme, Alpha-galactosidase inside Beano, on the Digestive System Problem To use the alpha-galactosidase enzyme in Beano to examine the effect of the enzyme in the digestive system at different temperatures and to find the glucose concentration at those temperatures which represents the efficiency of the enzyme under the various temperatures. If different temperatures of Beano solution are tested, then the temperatures closest to human body temperature will extract more glucose than other temperatures because of the fact that the human body has adapted to operate at an optimum temperature. Background The human body has several complex systems that fulfill essential goals the human needs to survive. Each system has a different procedure for the body and works individually or with other systems to perform that action. One of the human body systems is the digestive system. There are several steps that come into play when discussing the system, but in short, the  digestive system turns the food that humans eat into energy. In the digestive system, parts and organs include salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Digestion is the breakdown of large food particles into smaller molecules that are easy to absorb into the bloodstream (Gureco, 2015).This experiment focuses solely on the transfer of glucose from food consumed into the body. What does this food do for the human body? The path of the food being digested is as followed. When food enters the mouth saliva helps break it down. It goes down the esop hagus and enters the stomach where it is broken down further by acid in order to be able to extract nutrients from the food. It enters the small intestine where the nutrients are absorbed and goes through the large intestine where water is absorbed in order to create a stool (defecation) so that it can exit the body via the anus. Digestion occurs in which the rate and extent of sugar release from available carbohydrates, by simulating physiological processes occurring in the mouth, stomach and small intestine (Woolnough, 2010). The focal point of this experiment is to examine the glucose concentration with the help of alpha-galactosidase which all takes place in the path of digestion. To start off, the food (or food solution) used in this experiment was a solution of broken down refried beans. The enzyme Beano was used specifically for this experiment because, as the name suggests, Beano is made specifically for digestive assistance with beans. Beans have a tendency to cause stress in the human digestive system. The Beano was used with the refried beans to digest the beans easily. This allows an easy pathway for the glucose to be broken down and for the human body to absorb the glucose. According to a journal abstract written by RJ Levin, The glucose, galactose, and fructose produced are absorbed across the e nterocytes [cell of the intestine] of the upper half of the villus [increase of surface area in order to absorb more nutrients] (Levin, 1994) In more specific terms, foods are carbohydrates called oligosaccharides. In the case of this experiment, refried beans were used as the oligosaccharides. Oligosaccharides are groups of two to ten monosaccharides bonded together to form the carbohydrate. When entering the body, the enzyme called salivary amylase (most commonly known as human saliva) starts the chemical process of digestion of food. The enzyme breaks down the oligosaccharide carbohydrate polymers into monomers called monosaccharides. When oligosaccharides are broken down by digestion, a monomer called monosaccharides are produced. This is because multiple saccharide polymers are broken down into a simple sugar. Included in a humans digestive system are living microbes in the large intestine that carry out the process of breaking down the carbohydrates. These microbes in human in testines are necessary because the body needs to break down the food into monosaccharides to obtain the nutrients needed for processes such as cell repair, growth, and most importantly energy. The breaking down of the oligosaccharides are essential because The biological roles of oligosaccharides appear to span the spectrum from those that are trivial, to those that are crucial for the development, growth, function or survival of an organism (Varki, 1993). However, the refried beans mentioned have starch in which these microbes produce an uncomfortable and bloated feeling like the aforementioned stress that beans cause. Although the following experiment was done on a different species an abstract suggests that mammals that consume soybeans may suffer from a gastrointestinal hypersensitive reactions involving major disturbances in digestive functions (Sissons, 1982). The use of Beano in this experiment examines the effect of the alpha-galactosidase at varying temperatures as the inde pendent variable which assists the digestion of refried beans. The alpha-galactosidase is used to pinpoint the temperature in which glucose concentration is high or low as the dependent variable. Data  and  Observations      Ã‚   Figure Results  and  Discussion The graph illustrates several temperatures in which the solution of Beano and refried beans were tested. Similarities and differences can be observed across multiple of the Beano solution mixtures at the varying temperatures. Some of the lines that represent each temperature stand out more than others. It can clearly be seen that relatively high temperatures of the refried bean solution and Beano cannot extract much glucose from the solution itself. High temperatures that did not have a high glucose concentration included temperatures that ranged from 60oC to 90oC whose maximum glucose concentration did not reach over 0.50%. This outcome can also be predicted for any temperature higher than those experimented with because if 90oC did not extract any glucose, anything higher will do the same. The same outcome can be seen with the lesser temperature of 30oC, in which the concentration of glucose did not reach over 0.50% in the course of 25 minutes. Relatively high and low temperatures of refried bean and Beano solution extracted glucose at a lower rate or did not extract any glucose at all. In comparison, two temperatures of the solution stood out more than the others. The Beano solution skyrocketed at temperatures of 40oC and 50oC. It is clear that these two temperatures were different from the others. The reason behind it? Well the optimum temperature for digestion ranges from 37oC and 44oC. Relatively close to the aforementioned temperatures of the solution, is it not? This is because body temperature is approximately 37oC and this is the temperature in which the body functions best. Temperature gets too hot? Humans get a fever. Temperature gets too low? Humans start to internally develop hypothermia. Both indicate that the body is not fully functional. The temperature of 37oC is closer to 40oC than it is to 50oC. Figure 1 indicates that the Beano solution at 40oC had a higher slope which exemplifies the fact that digestion works best when near the body temperature of approximately 37oC. According to a news website, The body has sensors with memory, or its linked to the brain, and immediately it sense the food in the stomach has temperatures and pH outside the optimum range, it uses the energy and acids stored in the body to regulate the right conditions for the optimum digestion. This further exemplifies why the Beano solution of 40oC and 50oC worked best compared to the other five temperatures. The experiment proves the efficiency and effectivity of alpha-galactosidase inside Beano impacts the rate of glucose concentration of refried bean solution at varying temperatures of 30oC to 90oC. Analysis Oligosaccharides are groups of two to ten monosaccharides bonded together to form a carbohydrate. Carbohydrates are found in all foods that a human consumes. They consist of the sugars, starches, and fibers found in food and are made primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. When oligosaccharides are broken down by digestion, a monomer called monosaccharides are produced. This is because multiple saccharide polymers are broken down into a simple sugar (monosaccharide). The enzyme called salivary amylase breaks down these carbohydrate polymers called oligosaccharides into monomers. Salivary amylase, which is also known as saliva, breaks down starch when chewing food. As food is consumed, saliva inside the mouth starts the process of digestion by breaking down the food as humans chew. This allows the food to be broken down for glucose extraction and also breaking down the food for the esophagus. If food were not to be chewed, it cannot enter the esophagus and if it does, it will be difficult to swallow which can lead to respiratory injuries. In the human body, intestines have microbes that fulfill certain needs for the digestive system. These microbes in human intestines are necessary because the body needs to break down the food into monosaccharides to obtain the nutrients needed for processes such as cell repair, growth, and most importantly energy. In all, digestion is essentially important because of the advantages it gives to us in the form of energy. Without the energy produced from consuming, a human body cannot be fully functional. In the experiment, the enzyme, Beano, worked most efficiently at a temperature of about  40oC. As mentioned in discussion, this is because the optimum temperature for human digestion is approximately 37oC. That temperature is linked to the brain as a the human body temperature in which the human body operates at its best. Beano working most efficiently at 40oC can be explained because that temperature is approximately body temperature. Other varying  temperatures are not quite as efficient as body temperature because the human body breaks down glucose at its best. On the contrary, Beano worked least efficiently on the refried beans at an approximate temperature of 90oC. The reason behind this is that 90oC is way too hot for digestive organs to obtain nutrients. In turn, glucose cannot be absorbed which explains why the line in Figure 1 which represents 90cC did not increase throughout the course of the entire twenty-five minutes. Alpha-galactosidase is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme that is inside Beano extract to make it work. The enzymes in Beano helps with digestion, bloating, and reducing gas by increasing the rate of digestion. In the experiment, Beano was mixed with refried beans to increase the rate of glucose extraction from the beans. Refried beans were used because the starch inside the beans is difficult to digest which causes troubles such as methane gas (farting). The Beano was used with the refried beans to digest the beans easily. Another reason why the refried beans were used is because the enzyme, Beano, was created specifically for beans as beans are foods that are typically difficult to digest. When experimenting with different independent variables, it is better to have all lines on the same graph. Why? Well the graph of Figure 1 was used to compare different glucose concentration at different temperatures. Mentioned several times before, about 40 degrees Celsius worked best because it is body temperature. In this case, the line that represented 40oC can be compared to the other varying temperatures because of the fact that all of the lines were put on the same graph. In a lab very similar to the Beano experiment, peas were used instead of refried beans. The lab had the same concept and measured glucose concentration over time. Instead of using different temperatures for each line, the peas were differentiated by 25% pea extract solution,  50% pea extract solution, and 100% pea extract solution. All three solutions were tested at a temperature of 25oC. Each line increases as opposed to the lines of Figure 1 because it does not include temperature and it is different solutions being digested over time. It can be concluded that the 100% solution was digested the best. References Varki,A. (1993). Biologicalrolesof oligosaccharides:allof thetheoriesarecorrect[Abstract]. GlycoBiology.RetrievedDecember20, 2016, from Sissons, J. (1983). Effectsof soya-beanproductson digestiveprocesses inthegastrointestinal tractof preruminantcalves[Abstract].41(1), 53-53. RetrievedDecember20, 2016, from eeffects-of-soya-bean-products-on-digestive-processes-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-prerumina nt-calvesdiv/829E6E65CF3E213E31E10230E100A3C8. Levin,R.(n.d.). Digestionandabsorptionof carbohydratesfrommoleculesandmembranesto humans.[Abstract].ClinicalNutrition.RetrievedDecember20, 2016, from Gureco.HumanDigestiveSystem DigestiveEnzymes andDrinkingColdWaterafterMeal. (2015, June 24). RetrievedDecember20, 2016, from ater-after-Meal Woolnough. 1.W. (2010). The Effect of a Brief Salivary a-Amylase Exposure During Chewing on Subsequent in Vitro Starch Digestion Curve Profiles. Retrieved December 21. 2016. from

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Essay --

Joseph J. Ellis: Founding Brothers Founding Brothers a collection of stories by Joseph J. Ellis that discusses various events following the American Revolution and their impact on the budding Republic. The first theme talks about all key individuals that had a conglomerate of personalities and ideologies among the founding fathers. Because of this, it balanced the government and prevented one over arching outlook from sculpting the new government. This can easily transition into the second theme by Ellis. Despite the fact that this group of minds behind the birth of our government, had many different passionate perceptions on how said government be formed, they were still bound by close personal relationships. The second theme is present throughout the entire book. Especially in â€Å"The Dinner†, which I will discuss in more detail later on. Many of the important decisions early on were not only deliberated in public, but were also debated and contested in private at meetings and dinner parties. In the third theme, it was in their culminating interest to sweep slavery under the rug. Even though they knew it was an important issue, they also knew bringing it to public would wreak havoc on the new but feeble government. In the fourth theme, Ellis illustrates how the founding fathers used the advantages described in the previous themes to romanticized the interactions they had. They were very intelligent men who knew what kind of decisions they implemented would be important moments in history. They used their personal relationships in private meetings to shape how future generations would view them and the new government. They had specific control over how the events would be recorded. This made it easy for them to embellish wh... ...after the dinner conversation had ended. Jefferson was able to make â€Å"The Dinner† appear as though he brought Madison and Hamilton together for one fateful meeting that would determine the outcome of two of the most high profile decisions made in early government. Though the full scope wasn't probably apparent, Jefferson had a way of ensuring these types of meetings would universally be looked back on the way he wanted. Many of the discussions leading up to the dinner conversation were conveniently tucked away. This made the dinner conversation out to be much more important and decisive than it probably actually was. Ellis repeatedly touches these three themes throughout â€Å"The Dinner† to illustrate how much personal relationships, ideas, personalities, and presumed control affected the way our government was formed, and how we view the process as it took place.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Conflict Resolution Styles in Organizational Behaviour Essay

Conflict is a process that every one of us has experienced throughout our lifes. There are various definitions of conflicts as described by different authors but generally, conflict is a process whereby one individual’s interests is opposed or negatively affected by the other party (McShane et al. 2010). Workplace and organisational conflicts are usually more complex. Isenhart and Spangle (2000) points out that at the beginning the conflict may start because of improper placement of workers and their responsibilities in a workplace, but it may get worse if they faces unfair rules, ineffective management, unclear responsibilities or too much work assigned. Organisational conflicts can result in many possible outcomes, the negatives ones such as damaged employee relations, violence, increased tension between bosses and employees but it can have positive outcomes too such as increased employee-cohesiveness and increased motivation. How it will be achieved will be discussed throug h the elements of conflict and will be listed in greater details. Ways in which people approach conflict Avoiding Avoiding is probably the fastest way of resolving a conflict but at the same time it is not the best way because most of the time the avoider will remain unhappy even after the conflict. It does not permanently resolve the conflict (McShane et al. 2010) and in my opinion it is just ‘postponing’ the problem to have it solved at a later date. McCollum et al. (2009) states that the person who is avoiding thinks that confronting the conflict will bring more trouble than it is worth. The avoider also decides to not deal with the conflict because he or she might not have the confidence to do so. This seems like the more popular choice amongst the five ways in which people approach conflict based on my experiences because people simply do not want unnecessary trouble or aggravate the problem, especially if it is a minor issue. Avoiding pays no attention in concerns of either self or others (Kotthoff & Spencer-Oatey 2008). This is the least-sought option amongst the five approac hes but however, McCollum et al. (2009) suggests that avoiding can be a tactical approach when the other party has more strength and authority over you; and/or the avoiding the conflict will bring little or no devastating consequences. Problem-Solving I deemed this to be the most effective way in resolving organisational conflicts because both parties will benefit if they manage to find a double-win solution to the problem. This is considered to be the most desirable approach to conflict as there are no negative impacts at all. Only positive results will surface. Runde & Flanagan (2009) suggests that there might be a link between avoiding and problem-solving. Because many people tend towards avoidance, they often rush through problem solving and immediately use the first solution that they can think of so as to quickly get over the conflict, without any beneficial solutions. The key in using problem-solving as an approach to resolve conflicts lies in having patience to create multiple potential solutions. Careful reflection and consideration will progress into agreements that are both satisfying and successful (Runde & Flanagan 2009). Therefore when undergoing problem-solving, both parties must not rush to a solution immediately o r else the solution may backfire or do not satisfy both parties’ needs. Three strategies that help people manage conflict Before discussing about the three different strategies that help people to manage conflict, the strategies used are basically divided into three categories and they are interest-based, rights-based and power-based (Jameson 2001). Three different strategies from the three categories will be discussed respectively. Jameson (2001) advises that all resolutions of disputes and conflicts should start with a interest-based strategy, and if it does not resolves the conflict, it is followed by a rights-based strategy and if conflict persists, power-based strategy is then applied. Mediation (Interest-based) Jameson (2001) suggests that mediation is a form of ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution). Research has shown that interest-based strategies such as mediation had the best long-termed results such as improved relationship between parties, greater commitment to solutions and reduced future conflicts from happening. This is why involved parties in a conflict should use this approach as it reaps the most benefits. Even though there are many theories and various methods underlying mediation, it is generally defined as an intervention by a neutral third party which facilitates the process but allow participants in the conflict to control the outcome (Jameson 2001). Depending on the severity of the conflict, the mediator is to provide useful information in legal issues, help the participants into perspective thinking, provide a guide in finding the most satisfying and realistic settlement, help to improve the working/personal relationship between participants, or engage in some combination of the above methods. Inquisitorial Intervention (Rights-based) This describes intervention by a person of a higher authority; in most cases is the manager, who will make a final decision. Managers who adopt this strategy allow employees more or less control over presentation of their arguments before deciding on an appropriate solution (Jameson 2001). Because the third party(manager) listens to every party’s arguments before making a judgment, the manager acts as a ‘judge’ and this usually results in a win-lose situation, unlike Mediation which results in a win-win situation most of the time. Employees are given the opportunity to present their arguments and influence the final decision and this result in higher amount of fairness and satisfaction with outcomes. Employees involved in the conflict usually agree that the outcome decided by the third party is fair, but it could be better if they are able to retain the outcome control. Restructuring (Power-based) This is the more realistic popular method amongst power-based strategies because they are efficient (at least in the short run) and it follows a problem-solving procedure that is actually part of the managerial role (Jameson 2001). A powerful third party restructures the work and responsibilities of employees in order to solve problems. For example if employees does not see eye-to-eye with one another and it affects efficiency or quality of work produced, restructuring may simply solve this issue even though parties involved are not satisfied but at least they will not be able to see each other, proving restructuring to be a efficient method in the short run. This method may be efficient if time issues are being involved, such as the organisation needs to achieve a certain target by a certain date. Influence of culture in conflict resolution styles The three cultural values dimensions that are popularly discussed are individualism-collectivism, power distance and high-low context (McShane et al. 2010). Low/high context: refers to the amount of information contained in a clearly-expressed message versus implied message (Adair et al. 2004). Low-context culture is direct and negotiations are analytical and fact-based, while high-context culture is indirect and high-context negotiators tend to use an indirect communication method with usually contains implied meanings. An example of a low-context culture would be the United States of America and a high-context culture will be Japan (Adair et al. 2004). Individualism/Collectivism: Individualism refers to a society where the relationships between people are loose and they are expected to look after themselves or their immediate families only. Collectivism which is the opposite, refers to a society that people focus on being harmonious and emphasize on cohesiveness within themselves. In organisational context, individualism means individuals only care about their own goals and prefer to work alone and collectivism means working harmoniously in a teams and it emphasizes on teamwork. Power distance: McShane et al. (2010) defines power distance as the degree of importance that people place on status and power to control. Basically it means that human inequality may occur in many fields such as status, wealth, power, rules etc. In organisational settings it refers between superiors/managers and employees mainly. In a high power distance working environment, employees tend to just do their work without raising doubts or question their bosses, due to fear in the difference of their power, low power distance means otherwise, where employees and their superiors work hand in hand to resolve issues. A few decades ago, managers can spend up to twenty percent of their time in resolving conflicts. Nowadays, conflicts are generally much more complex and take up more time to resolve due to technological advances, world’s exponential growth rate and globalization which led to increase contacts between people of many different cultures (Kotthoff & Spencer-Oatey 2008). This suggests that our modern world has an increase of numbers of cultural conflicts and they are usually hard to resolve due to the extreme range of differences in thinking, values, ethics etc between individuals of different cultures. To further elaborate on this point, Brigg (2008) states that most experts in this field now come to an agreement that culture frames the experiences of conflict of people, their reactions and responses to other people in conflict, and the types of strategies they might consider to manage or otherwise address disputes. Therefore when facing against a cultural conflict issue, one must understand that the other party does not grow up in the same environment as him/her, had not been taught the same teachings and values since young. To put in simpler terms, the definition of what is right and what is correct might not be the same between the two parties. This also explains why it is so difficult in applying conflict resolution styles when it comes to cultural conflicts because it is hard to accept the other party’s â€Å"correct† values which may be the â€Å"wrong† values of one as both of them have been gorged those values since young in their growing up environment. Conclusion Two ways of conflict-handling styles were discussed and avoiding can be a good approach sometimes despite many of its negativity and although problem-solving is the best approach, it cannot be rushed and many potential solutions must be raised in order to finding the best solution. Three strategies from three different categories of conflict resolution styles were discussed and despite the major differences in terms of popularity of usage and way of handling, all the three strategies can produce effective results in organisational settings if they were applied in the correct circumstances. Three cultural values dimensions were discussed and it was also explained that influence of culture in conflict resolution styles remains fundamentally significant and it is currently the most challenging in conflict resolution.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Mitosis and Cell Cycle Study

Cell Growth and Reproduction Study Guide The Cell Cycle Study Guide Vocabulary – Cell Cycle, Mitosis, CytokinesisHow did the G1 and G2 stages get their names?Cells must pass through a critical checkpoint during which two stages of the cell cycle?Where does DNA synthesis happen in eukaryotic cells?What two processes make up the M stage?Among different types of cells, which stage of the cell cycle varies most in length?Why does a skin cell divide more often than a liver cell?What is G0?Write an analogy to explain why cell size is limited.Which typically increases faster as a cell grows, surface area or volume?For cells to stay the same size from generation to generation, what two things must be coordinated?Think of an example of a cycle. What does this have in common with the cell cycle?What process divides a cell’s cytoplasm? How do the two word parts of your answer help you remember it?What process divides the cell nucleus and its contents?Related article: -replication-of-eukaryotic-cells/">How Many Spores Would You Estimate are Present on the Gills of a Single Cap of CoprinusMitosis and Cytokinesis Study Guide Vocabulary: chromosome, histone, chromatin, chromatid, centromere, telomere, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophaseWhat is a chromosome?Why do chromosomes condense at the start of mitosis?Why are chromosomes not condensed during all stages of the cell cycle?Sketch how DNA goes from a long stringy form to a tightly condensed form. Label the parts of the condensed, duplicated chromosome.How does interphase prepare a cell to divide?Mitosis occurs in what types of cells?Develop a device, such as a short sentence or phrase, to help you remember the order of the steps of mitosis.Illustrate and describe the four phases of mitosis.How does cytokinesis differ between plant and animal cells?DNA wraps around organizing proteins called .The suffix –tin indicates that something is stretched and thin. Is the loose combination of DNA and proteins that looks sort of like spaghetti.Sister chromatids are held together at the which looks pinched.The ends of DNA molecules form structures called that help prevent the loss of genes. Regulation of the Cell Cycle Study GuideVocabulary: growth factor, apoptosis, cancer, benign, malignant, metastasize, carcinogenWhat regulates the cell cycle?What is apoptosis?What type of disease may result if cell division is not properly regulated?List three ways mutations can occur in genes involved in cell-cycle regulation.What does metastasize mean?What is a substance know to produce or promote the development of cancer?Draw a cartoon to help you remember the difference between benign and malignant. Asexual Reproduction Study Guide Vocabulary: asexual reproduction, binary fission.1. Offspring resulting from asexual reproduction and those resulting from sexual reproduction differ in one major way. What is the difference?2. Sketch and describe the three steps of binary fission. Fill in the chart below to highlight the advantage and disadvantages of asexual reproduction. Advantages| Disadvantages|3. | | 4. | | 5. | |6. If a eukaryotic organism reproduces through mitosis, what is true about the offspring and the parent organism?7. In what types of organisms is mitotic reproduction most common?8. List three examples of mitotic reproduction. 9. What forms of reproduction does the sea anemone use?10. Write a word that starts with the letters â€Å"bi†. Explain what is similar between the meaning of the word you wrote and the meaning of â€Å"binary fission†.11. What is the creation of offspring form only one parent organism called?Multicellular Life Study Guide Vocabulary: tissue, organ, organ system, cell differentiation, stem cellList the levels of organization and explain each.List two examples of tissues found in plants.List two examples of organ systems found in plants.How does an organism benefit from organ systems that work together and communicat e?What is the process by which unspecialized cells develop into specialized cells?Do different types of cells have different DNA? Explain.What role does cell location play within a developing embryo?How do stem cells differentiate out into different cells?List the three identifying characteristics of stem cells.List one advantage of using adult stem cells and one advantage of using embryonic stem cells.What is cell differentiation?Write the following words in order from the largest structure to the smallest structure:

Oregon Wines Essay

Although winemaking dates back to 1840’s, in Oregon, commercial production began in 1960’s (Hall). Having a relatively short history of 50 years, today, Oregon is the third largest wine producer state of United States. As of 2009, the state hosts to 453 wineries which are mostly small and family-owned (Wine Communications Group). History of the Oregon Wine Industry The first grape plantation in the region was made by horticulturist Henderson Luelling, in Willamette Valley by 1847. By the 1850’s Peter Britt started growing wine grapes in his Valley View Vineyard, today’s Applegate Valley. According to the census; in 1860, wine production was 11,800 litres (2,600 gallons) in Oregon (Hall). By the 1880’s, Edward and John von Pessls planted Zinfandel, Riesling, and an unkown variety of Sauvignon in southern Oregon. At the same times in the north, in Willamette Valley, Ernest Reuter has been growing Klevner wines which brought him a gold medal at St. Louis World’s Fair of 1904 (Hall). The wine industry in Oregon closed down in 1919 because of the Prohibition. It revived by the late 1930’s as a fruit wine-based producer region. At that time there were only two producers, Louis Herbold and Adolph Doener growing grapes. Oregon’s wine industry was also damaged by the success of California winemakers (Hall). The rebirth of Oregon wines dates back to 1961, when Richard Sommer founded Hill Crest Vineyard near Roseburg. Although the production was based on Riesling, he also planted some Gewurztraminer, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, and Cabernet Sauvignon. In 1965, David Lett, the owner of Eyrie Vineyard, planted his first Pinot Noir near Convallis and after 1966, continued the production at Willamette Valley in the Dundee hills. This was the beginning of the era of Pinot Noir which Oregon is nowadays famous for (Hall). By the 1970’s many winemakers immigrated to Oregon from California. Some of them where David and Ginny Adelsheim, Dick Erath, Dick and Nancy Ponzi, Jerry and Ann Preston, Pat and Joe Campbell, Susan and Bill Sokol Blosser and Myron Redford. However, David Lett was the one who placed Oregon on the world’s wine map. In 1980, 1975 Eyrie Vineyard’s South Block Reserve Pinot Noir came second in the grand tasting of wines sponsored by the French Gault Millau guide and this called the attention of press to Oregon as a wine producer state (Hall). In 1990, Oregon was hosted to 70 wineries and 320 growers in 5,682 acres vineyard. In the early 1990s, Oregon wine industry got into the danger of Phylloxera infestation which was prevented quickly by the use of resistant rootstocks. Some beneficial laws for winemakers were enacted by the Oregon Legislature in 1995. For instance, direct in-state shipment from wineries to customers and in-store tasting were legalized (Chemeketa Community College). In 2000, the number of wineries had increased to 135 and 500 growers had been engaged in grapery in 10,500 acres vineyard. In the 2000’s producers have began giving importance to â€Å"green† wine production in Oregon (Chemeketa Community College). An Oregon non-profit organization, Low Input Viticulture and Enology, Inc. , has been certifying wineries for meeting certain environmental standards (Low Input Viticulture and Enology, Inc. ) In 2005, there were 314 wineries and 519 vineyards in Oregon (Chemeketa Community College). Grape Varietals Grown in Oregon Red Wine Varieties| White Grape Varieties| Baco Noir| Chardonnay| Barbera| Chenin Blanc| Black Muscat| Early Muscat| Cabarnet Franc| Gewurtztraminer| Cabarnet Sauvignon| Huxelrebe| Carmine| Melon| Dolcetto| Muller Thrugau| Gamay Noir| Muscat Canelli| Grenache| Pinot Blanc|. Leon Millot| Pinot Gris| Malbec| Riesling| Marechal Foch| Sauvignon Blanc| Merlot| Scheurebe| Petit Verdot| Semillon| Pinot Meunier| Viognier| Pinor Noir| | Sangiovese| | Syrah| | Zinfandel| | (Bernard’s Wine Gallery) Types of Wine Produced in Oregon In Oregon, wine production is mostly based on Pinot Noir and the state is one of the first Pinot-producing regions in the world. Apart from the list below indicating the wine varieties, the state also produces sparkling wine, late harvest wine, ice wine, and dessert wine (Hall). Red Wine Varieties| White Wine Varieties|. Produced in great amount| Cabarnet Sauvignon| Gewurtztraminer| Pinot Noir| Muller Thurgau| Syrah| Pinot Blanc| | Sauvignon Blanc| | Semillon| Produced in smaller amount| Baco Noir| Arneis| Cabarnet Franc| Chenin Blanc| Dolcetto| Viognier| Gamay Noir| | Grenache| | Marechal Foch| | Malbec| | Muscat| | Nebbiolo| | Petit Syrah| | Sangiovese| | Tempranillo| | Zinfandel| | Viticultural Area of Oregon Willamette Valley â€Å"Willamette Valley is the largest AVA of Oregon, running from the Columbia River in Portland south through Salem to the Calapooya Mountains outside Eugene†. The valley is 150 miles long and almost 60 miles wide (Oregon Wine Board). In the valley, summers are generally warm and arid and the winters are cool and rainy. It is ideal for cool climate grapes due to its temperate climate and coastal marine influences. During the growing season, the valley has more daylight hours than other areas of Oregon (Oregon Wine Board). â€Å"The Willamette Valley is an old volcanic and sedimentary seabed that has been overlaid with gravel, silt, rock and boulders brought by the Missoula Floods from Montana and Washington between thousands of years ago. Red Jory soil is the most common volcanic type in the region and provides excellent drainage for superior quality wine grapes. † (Oregon Wine Board) â€Å"The valley is surrounded by the Coast Range to the west, the Cascades to the east and a series of hill chains to the north† (Oregon Wine Board). The Willamette River runs through the middle of the valley. Most of the vineyards are concentrated on the west of this river, on the slopes of the Coast Range, or among the valleys and they are mostly located a few hundred feet above sea level (Oregon Wine Board). Columbia Valley Although the Columbia Valley AVA is an 11 million acre growing region, only a small section with 185 miles wide and 200 miles long lies in Oregon (Oregon Wine Board). The valley has a mostly continental high desert climate. The hot days and cool nights provide slow, even ripening and helps grapes keep their natural acidity. Annually, the area only receives 6 to 8 inches of rainfall which makes supplemental irrigation essential in the entire region (Oregon Wine Board). The area is covered with silt and sand which was deposited about 15,000 years ago. The deposited silt and sand came to the region 15,000 years ago because of a series of massive ice age floods and wind-blown loess sediment. Today the region is mostly covered by loess (fine grained calcerous silt) which is well drained and ideal for grapevines (Oregon Wine Board). The Columbia Valley mostly lies on the Columbia River Plateau. The valley is bordered by the mountain ranges on the west and north, by the Columbia River on the south and by the Snake River near Idaho on the east (Oregon Wine Board). Walla Walla Valley. As a sub-appellation of the Columbia Valley AVA, The Walla Walla Valley AVA is in the northeast of Oregon. Although most of the wineries of Walla Walla Valley are located in Washington, almost half of the vines are produced in the Oregon side (Oregon Wine Board). The region has long sunshine-filled days and cool evening temperatures. Annual rainfall is 12. 5 inches due to the Cascade Mountain Range. Therefore, irrigation is necessary for grape growing (Oregon Wine Board). The soils of the region consist of varying combinations of well-drained loam, cobbles, silt and loess (Oregon Wine Board). The valley is located at the foot of the Blue Mountains, with vineyard elevations varying from 650 to 1,500 feet. Cascade Mountain Range borders the western side of the valley (Oregon Wine Board). Umpqua Valley The Umpqua Valley AVA is surrounded by the Coast Range from the west, the Cascade Range from the east, the Willamette Valley AVA from the north and the Rogue Valley AVA from the south. The valley is 65 miles long and 25 miles wide. Umpqua River runs nearby the valley (Oregon Wine Board). There are three different climatic sub-zones in the valley. First one is the northern area around the town of Elkton which has a cool, marine-influenced climate suitable for cool-climate grape varieties. Annual rainfall is around 50 inches; therefore, the viticulturists only benefit from the rain to grow their vines. Second is the central area to the northwest of Roseburg which has an intermediate climate allowing both cool and warm varieties to grow. Last area is located on the south of Roseburg. It is suitable for warm-climate varieties, such as Tempranillo, Syrah and Merlot. This area is more arid which makes irrigation necessary (Oregon Wine Board). The Valley has diverse soils with more than 150 soil types. â€Å"The valley floor levels have mostly deep alluvial or heavy clay materials, while the hillsides and bench locations have mixed alluvial, silt or clay structures† (Oregon Wine Board). The Umpqua Valley is made up of a series of interconnecting small mountain ranges and valleys. The complex topography of the valley is a result of the collision of the Klamath Mountains, the Coast Range and the Cascades (Oregon Wine Board). Rogue Valley The Rogue Valley AVA is located in the border of California. It is 70 miles wide by 60 miles long. Rogue Valley has the highest elevations of Oregon’s winegrowing regions on the east. However, it is also the warmest and the driest, allowing the winemakers to grow warm-weather varieties such as Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc. Cool-weather varieties, including Pinot noir do well here due to the mountain and ocean influences (Oregon Wine Board). Rogue Valley has various soil types, ranging from sandy loam to hard clay (Oregon Wine Board). Vineyards are generally located 1,200 to 2,000 feet above the sea level and planted on hillsides. The Klamath Mountains, the Coastal Range and the Cascades converging in Rogue Valley lead to a diverse landscape. Besides, the namesake river and its tributaries, the Applegate, Illinois and Bear Creek Rivers run though the valley (Oregon Wine Board). Viticultural Practices in Oregon In Oregon, viticulturists mainly use vertical shoot position (VSP) training. However, combination of Scott Henry and Lyre is also used, with lesser amounts of GDC and hanging. Standard rootstocks used in Oregon are 101-14 and 3309, with a lot of 5C and SO4. Low to moderate vigor sites are being developed to keep the canopies small. Although some meter by meter plantings exist, majority of the vineyards are falling into the 8Ãâ€"4 to 9Ãâ€"5 range for quality. Creative viticultural practices are being used in Oregon, for example, â€Å"Joel Myer, a local vineyard consultant, uses a sensible linear feet of trellis formula to determine yields. He suggests that a pound of fruit per foot of trellis will give optimal fruit quality. At Bethel Heights Vineyard, Ted Casteel thins all Pinot Noir to one cluster per shoot. He is also experimenting with planting vines side by side, about a foot apart, and training to single guyot, to increase vine competition and slow vigor. He is also taking one of his most successful Pinot Noir fields on vertical shoot position (VSP) training and converting it to Scott Henry, just to see if opening the canopy will help enhance the ripening process and flavor development (Chien). † â€Å"Oregon has been committed to sustainable winegrowing and earth-friendly practices. Numerous vineyards of the state are certified sustainable, organic, or biodynamic† (Voorhees). Two main organizations that certify Oregon’s vineyards and wineries as sustainable are LIVE and OCSW. Low Input Viticulture & Enology (LIVE). LIVE is an organization that provides education and independent third-party certification approving that the vineyards and wineries use international standards of sustainable viticulture and enology practices. They have been certifying vineyards and wineries in Oregon since 1999, in Washington since 2006 and nowadays in all of the Pacific Northwest. LIVE cooperates with Salmon-Safe in order to point out the watershed impacts and administers the Carbon Reduction Challenge, an organization helping wineries achieve energy efficiencies (Voorhees). Oregon Certified Sustainable Wine (OCSW). Founded in 2008, OCSW highlights the commitment of Oregon wineries to the responsible grape growing and winemaking. The organization certifies wine growers who meet both agricultural and winemaking requirements on sustainability and provides them a certification logo to be easily recognized by customers. To meet the agricultural requirements, 97% of the grape must be certified by LIVE, USDA Organic, Demeter Biodynamic, or Food Alliance and Salmon-Safe. On the other hand, to meet the winemaking requirements, the winery must be certified by LIVE, USDA Organic, Demeter Biodynamic, or Food Alliance (Voorhees). Producers within Oregon Valley View Winery Valley View Winery, owned by Wisnovsky family, is located in the Applegate Valley AVA, Southern Oregon. Valley View was founded in 1972 and it is one of the oldest wineries in Oregon. Valley View is famous for its pioneering efforts in producing Bordeaux varieties and blends. They mainly use grapes from the Applegate and Bear Creek Valleys of Southern Oregon’s Rogue Valley and produce Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Tempranillo, Viognier, Sauvignon blanc, Rousanne, Chardonnay and Syrah (Valley View Winery). The Eyrie Vineyards. The Eyrie Vineyards was founded by David Lett in 1966. It is composed of 49 acres in several different vineyards in Dundee Hills, Oregon which is a sub-American Viticultural Area (AVA) of Willamette Valley AVA. David Lett produced the first Pinot gris in the United States and first Pinot Noir in the Willamette Valley. The Eyrie Vineyards divide their production into three as Estate Reserve wines, Estate wines, and Limited Bottlings. All grapes for their Estate Reserve wines; Pinot noir and Chardonnay, come from Eyrie’s original planting. This is the oldest plating in the Willamette Valley at 40 years. The grapes for Eyrie’s Estate wines come mostly from their three other vineyards; Stonehedge, Sisters, and Rolling Green Farm which were planted in the 1980’s. They grow Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris and Chardonnay. Finally, their small production, limited bottling wines include Muscat Ottonel, Pinot Blanc and Pinot Meunier (The Eyrie Vineyards). Abacela Vineyard and Winery In 1992, Earl and Hilda Jones bought a 19th century homestead in southern part of the Umpqua Valley to produce Tempranillo wines which they fell in love to in Spain. In 1994 they built the winery and began planting the Tempranillos they purchased from California. They chose the Umpqua Valley because of its similar climate to the one of Spain’s Rioja and Ribera del Duero regions where Tempranillo grapes are grown. Today, in addition to the eight different Tempranillo clones at Abacela, they grow grapes and produce wine from Spain’s white variety, Albarino, as well as other Iberian varieties including Graciano, Tinta roriz and Bastardo (used in the production of port-style wines) and French varieties such as Syrah, Grenache, Cabernet sauvignon, Merlot, Malbec, Petit verdot and Viognier (Wines Northwest). Bibliography â€Å"Abacela Vine & Wine Center in Oregon’s Umpqua Valley Wine Region. † Wines Northwest. N. p. , n. d. Web. 29 Oct. 2012. . â€Å"About The Eyrie Vineyards. † The Eyrie Vineyards. N. p. , n. d. Web. 29 Oct. 2012. . Chien, Mark L. â€Å"The Oregon Wine Community and Its Viticulture. † Pennsylvannia Wine Grape Network. Penn State Cooperative Extension, n. d. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. . Hall, Lisa Shara. â€Å"History of the Oregon Wine Industry. † History of the Oregon Wine Industry. Ed. Mitchell Beazley. N. p. , n. d. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. . â€Å"History of Oregon Wine. † Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 May 2012. Web. 28 Oct. 2012. . Low Input Viticulture and Enology, Inc. N. p. , n. d. Web. 28 Oct. 2012. . â€Å"Northwest Viticultural Center: Oregon Wine Historical Milestones. † Discover Chemeketa Community College. Chemeketa.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Leadership, Teambuilding, and Communication Research Paper

Leadership, Teambuilding, and Communication - Research Paper Example   There are various types of leadership styles and interpersonal forms of powers used in various organizations and how they impact organization’s performance. Leadership in an organization can refer to the practices of controlling and guiding of individuals in the work environment. It is the art of getting other doing what one believes in or wants (Griffin & Moorhead, 2013). Traditionally, leadership is perceived as a method where the power is given to the leaders. The traditional behavioral theory identifies different leadership styles among the people. It recognizes several behavioral styles namely autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire styles, transformational and transactional. Autocratic or authoritarian leaders assume absolute powers over the workers in an organization (Hislop, 2013). Those leaders may use threat or force to compel the employees to pursue the organizational goals or impose their will on the workers. They perceive workers as incompetent, irresponsible an d lazy who cannot perform without authority and control (Griffin & Moorhead, 2013). Authoritarian managers do not consult the employees or allow them to give their contributions in the decision-making process. Such leaders are sole decision makers and will issue directives to the workers at all times. Military leaders mainly use authoritative powers to achieve their targets.   Democratic leaders value the contribution of their workers and always work in collaboration with the employees in order to achieve common goals.  Ã‚